Sabtu, 30 Juni 2012


Raden Wijaya

In February 1292 the Mongol emperor of China, Kublai Khan, ordered the preparation of a punitive naval expedition directed against Java. It was partly an act of retaliation for King Kertanagara's refusal to pay tribute to China, and especially for the cruel and contemptuous way in which the Javanese ruler had disfigured the face of an imperial envoy.
The fleet, which is reported to have consisted of 1000 ships, manned with 20,000 soldiers, was ready to leave by November. The journey was hazardous and beset with ill- fortune. Almost immediately after departure the convoy was hit by a typhoon; it was refused entry into Champa, where the loading of fresh supplies had been anticipated, and consequently by the time it approached the harbour at Tuban on Java's north coast the force was already demoralized, many of the soldiers suffering from starvation and dysentery.
The Chinese army was greeted by representatives from the new settlement at Majapahit, who explained that Kertanagara had been defeated and killed a few months previously and that his throne had been seized by a usurper, Jayakatwang of Kediri. The rightful heir, Raden Wijaya, son-in-law of Kertanagara, had established a stronghold at Majapahit and was asking for assistance in the annihilation of their common enemy, in return for official tribute.
An alliance was formed and on 15 March 1293 the combined force launched an attack on Daha (Kediri). The final assault on the capital was made five days later, resulting in the loss of 5000 Kediri lives and the surrender of Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya then returned to Majapahit, ostensibly to prepare his tribute settlement, leaving his allies to celebrate their victory. Quickly mobilizing his forces again, however, he turned on the Chinese army in a surprise attack, killing many and sending the rest running back to their ships. In this way Raden Wijaya established the kingdom of Majapahit. Seven months later, in November 1293, he was officially enthroned, bearing the royal title Kertarajasa Jayawardhana.

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika

The national emblem of the Republic of Indonesia, GARUDA PANCASILA, is emblazoned with the words BHINNEKA TUNGGAL IKA. Translated, they mean 'Unity in Diversity' or, 'We are of many kinds, but we are one'. This motto is a founding principle of the modern Indonesian nation, which declares the essential unity of its members despite ethnic, regional, social or religious differences.
The concept of BHINNEKA TUNGGAL IKA is not new to Indonesian history. It can be traced back to the time of the construction of Borobudur, when the Sailendra dynasty ruled on the plains of Central Java in the eighth and ninth centuries. Two hundred years later, in the Brantas Valley in East Java, King Airlangga built a united kingdom based on this same principle.
It was, however, the 14th century poet sage of Majapahit, Mpu Tantular, who is said to have committed the phrase to writing for the first time. In his religious poem Sutasoma, composed during the reign of King Rajasanagara (Hayam Wuruk), Mpu Tantular expounded a doctrine of reconciliation between the Hindu and Buddhist faiths. Such a spirit of religious tolerance was an essential element in the foundation and security of the newly emerging State of Majapahit, which reached the height of its power and influence under the guiding hand of the prime minister Gajah Mada.
In more recent years, the words of Mpu Tantular were an inspiration to the founders of the first Independent Government of the Republic of Indonesia, and today they are found immortalized on the national emblem.

Mpu Sindok

Following the shift of political power from central to eastern Java at the beginning of the 10th century, the first kingdom to emerge was called Isana, established by Mpu Sindok in A.D. 929. The capital, at Watugaluh, is thought to have been located on the banks of the Brantas river, in the region of Jombang.
Sindok is reported to have had two wives, one of whom, Sri Parameswari Dyah Kbi, may have been the daughter of Dyah Wawa, the last known ruler of ancient Mataram in Central Java. Since it is known that Sindok had formerly held a high ministerial position in the Mataram government, it seems likely that he was recognized as the successor to Dyah Wawa on the strength of this marriage.
Despite the discovery of quite a number of stone inscriptions dating from Sindok's reign, the information which they reveal has not helped to shed very much light on this historical period. Our most informative source, in fact, dates from the following century, when East Java was ruled by King Airlangga. An inscription known as the 'Calcutta Stone', so named because it is preserved in the Indian Museum of Calcutta, traces the genealogy of Airlangga back to King Sindok. Thus we are informed that, following Sindok's death in A.D.947/8, the throne was taken over by his daughter, Sri Isana Tunggawijaya, who was married to a Sri Lokapala. Their son and successor, Sri Makutawangsawardhana, was known as the 'Sun of the Isana Dynasty'. It was from the union of his daughter, Mahendradatta, with the Balinese ruler Udayana, that Airlangga was born.

Airlangga

The famous 'Calcutta Stone', dating from A.D. 1041, describes a terrible calamity which befell the East Javanese kingdom of Isana in the early years of the 11th century. A rebellion incited by a jealous vassal king resulted in the destruction of the capital of Watugaluh. The reigning king, Dharmawangsa, successor to Sri Makutawangsawardhana, was murdered along with his entire family. Only the young Airlangga, who was aged about 16 at the time, managed to escape unharmed.
After spending three or four years in the safety of a forest retreat, Airlangga, as the closest surviving relative to Dharmawangsa, emerged to take over the throne in about 1020. The early part of his reign was spent putting down rebellions and securing the borders of his kingdom. Among his successful military campaigns were those against King Wishnuprabhawa of Wuratan, King Wijaya of Wengker, as well as the subjugation of a powerful queen in the south. In 1032 Airlangga attacked and defeated the ruler of Wurawari, who is believed to have been responsible for the earlier destruction of the old capital of Isana.By the end of Airlangga's reign, in the mid 11th century, the kingdom which he had established is believed to have stretched from Pasuruan in the east, to present day Madiun in the west.
Although there are few surviving archaeological remains dating from his time, Airlangga is known to have been a keen patron of the arts, notably literature. In around 1035, the court poet Mpu Kanwa produced the Arjuna Wiwaha, which has to this day remained one of Java's most popular classical stories. Adapted from the Indian Mahabharata epic, the poem recounts episodes in the life of the hero sage Arjuna, who was an incarnation of the Hindu god Wishnu. There are reasons to believe that the poem was a portrait of the life of Airlangga himself. He, like Arjuna, was seen as a divine incarnation, apparently laid to rest at Candi Belahan, where he was portrayed in stone as Wishnu on Garuda.
Towards the end of his life, Airlangga was faced with the problem of succession. The rightful heir, the princess Sanggramawijaya, refused the throne, preferring to live her life as a hermit. She is traditionally associated with the legend of Dewi Kilisuci and the cave of Selomangleng at Kediri.
Airlangga's realm was, as a result, eventually divided between two of his sons, giving rise to the separate kingdoms of Janggala and Kediri. It was Kediri, however, which was to become the dominant power until the rise of Singosari in the early 13th century.

Rajasa Dynasty

The rulers of Singosari and Majapahit trace their origins back to the mysterious figure of Ken Angrok, who founded the Rajasa dynasty early in the 13th century. According to the Pararaton 1), our main source of literary information about this period, Ken Angrok was born in the Malang region, apparently from the union of his mother, Ken Endok, with the god Brahma 2). Abandoned in a cemetery shortly after his birth, the infant was subsequently adopted by a thief named Lembong, whose questionable talents the child was later to inherit.
As a young man, Ken Angrok became a notorious gambler, running up debts to the point where both his mother and .stepfather were forced into slavery. Such reckless behaviour earned him a great deal of unpopularity in the community, and on more than one occasion Brahma himself had to intervene when he feared for his son's life. Yet, Ken Angrok was destined to become a great king. Signs which indicated him as an incarnation of the god Wishnu were revealed to the Brahmin priest Dang Hyang Lohgawe, who travelled from India in search of the youth. He found him at a gambling table in the village of Taloka. Following the advice of the priest, Ken Angrok accompanied him to Tumapel, where he was placed in the employment of the local ruler, Tunggul Ametung.
Tunggul Ametung had a beautiful young wife named Ken Dedes, the daughter of Mpu Purwa, a renowned Buddhist priest. She had been abducted by the Tumapel ruler while her father was away practicing asceticism in the forest. Returning to find his daughter gone, Mpu Purwa had laid a curse on Tunggul Ametung, swearing that he would meet his end by being stabbed to death by a keris (Javanese double edged dagger). Ken Dedes, on the other hand, was promised a life of happiness and furfilment.
As the gods had willed, Ken Angrok happened to be in the park of Baboji on the day when the ruler of Tumapel and his wife, who was three months pregnant, were passing by. The carriage came to a halt, and as Ken Dedes descended a gentle breeze caused her skirts to part momentarily, allowing the youth a glimpse of the light radiating from between her thighs. Reporting his experience to the priest Lohgawe, Ken Angrok was advised that a woman who displayed such signs possessed enormous power, and whoever took her to wife, regardless of his character or position, would inevitably become a king of kings. On hearing the words of the priest, Ken Angrok resolved to win the hand of Ken Dedes, even if it meant having to kill her husband.
In the village of Lulumbang there lived a renowned metal smith named Mpu Gandring who, it was said, could forge a kens capable of overcoming the strongest magical protection. Since it was known that Tunggul Ametung was a man of great power, a special weapon had to be created in order to destroy him. On hearing Ken Angrok's request, therefore, Mpu Gandring said that he would need a full year in which to perfect the blade. Knowing that Ken Dedes was pregnant, and determined to murder Tunggul Ametung before his wife gave birth to a possible son and heir, Ken Angrok found these conditions unacceptable. Impatiently, he demanded that Mpu Gandring complete the job in five months, and then went on his way.

Joko Dolog

A stone image of the Buddha Akshobya, curiously matching the description of the 'missing statue' at Candi Jawi, can be found today in a small, secluded park in Surabaya. Known locally as Joko Dolog, the statue displays a lengthy sanskrit inscription, carved neatly around its base. When it was translated for the first time early in this century, the inscription was found to reveal important historical information dating from the period immediately prior to the founding of Majapahit. Executed in the year 1289 by a Buddhist scribe named Nada, the contents are roughly as follows:
It is said that in times long past the sage Mpu Bharada divided the land of Java into the kingdoms of Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri), with the purpose of settling a dispute between two brothers over the right to royal succession. The division was created magically, by means of holy water sprinkled out of a jar from the sky. Since the reign of Sri Wishnuwardhana, however, the country had been re-united, to the joy and benefit of all. The present ruler, of whom the statue was said to have been a portrait, was Wishnuwardhana's son, Kertanagara, who had commissioned the image as a symbol of this re-unification.
prasastiThe information contained in the Joko Dolog inscription is especially interesting because it appears to establish the authenticity of certain historical figures and events, previously known only from ancient Javanese literature. The story of the division of Java by the sage Mpu Bharada is of course well known, and refers to the reign of King Airlangga in the 11th century. On the other hand, by giving Wishnuwardhana the credit for having re-united the country, the inscription has tended to cast doubt upon the reliability of traditional literary sources, particularly with regard to the story of Ken Angrok and Ken Dedes, which has by some been dismissed as a complete fabrication.
Yet, since the discovery in 1975 of a number of inscribed copper sheets originating from the region of Kediri, new light has been shed on the early years of the Singosari period. Known as the inscription of Mula Malurung, issued by King Kertanagara in 1255, it mentions the names of Wishnuwardhana, Tohjaya, as well as a number of other kings whose names have been hitherto unknown to historians. Finally, and most interesting, the Mula Malurung inscription appears to suggest the existence of Ken Angrok, thus at least confirming an historical basis for a story which was beginning to fade entirely into the realm of myth.

Kertanagara

The last and most well known of the Singosari kings was Kertanagara. Praised in the Nagarakertagama as a devout Buddhist, well versed in many branches of philosophy and esoteric science, he is considered to have been the first Javanese ruler to envision a united Indonesia. Kertanagara's dreams, however, were not to be fully realized until half a century after his death, during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit. The expansionist foreign policy which he pursued, partly as a response to the increasing threat posed by the Mongol emperor, Kublai Khan, was perhaps too ambitious. His expedition to Bali in 1284 was inconclusive, while the army which he sent to subjugate the kingdom of Malayu in lower Sumatra left him unable to cope with rebellion closer to home. Kertanagara had, further, lost the favour of a number of powerful and influential statesmen, who had been loyal to his father, Wishnuwardhana. Two of these especially, the former prime minister Mpu Raganata and the security advisor Aria Wiraraja, had been relegated to lower positions in the new government.
According to one historical account, the Kidung Panji Wijayakrama, the rebellion which led to Kertanagara's death in 1292 was, in part, incited by Wiraraja, who had been given a relatively minor position as governor of Sumenep in Madura.
From information contained in the inscription of Mula Malurung, we learn that Kertanagara, as crown prince and heir apparent to the throne of Singosari, had already been installed as ruler of Kediri in 1254, fourteen years before his father's death. This event was unlikely to have pleased his brother-in-law, Jayakatwang, who claimed direct descent from the old kings of Kediri, and who was thus looking for an opportunity for revenge. The moment came in 1292. Despite repeated warnings from his ministers, Kertanagara did not recognize the weakness of his position. The result was that he died defending his palace, together with many of his closest followers, heavily outnumbered by the forces of Jayakatwang. The story of the gallant but hopeless defense put up by his son-in-law, Raden Wijaya, has been preserved in detail in the famous Kudadu inscription, discovered on the slopes of Mt Butak, to the south of Mojokerto. The inscription relates how the two commanders, Raden Wijaya and Ardaraja, had been given the task of defending the area north of the Singosari capital. Ardaraja, however, who was a son of Jayakatwang, is said to have betrayed his comrade and, perhaps on account of divided loyalty, gone over to the enemy. Reduced finally to an exhausted force of just twelve men, Raden Wijaya fled across the Strait of Madura and took refuge with Aria Wiraraja in Sumenep. From there he designed his strategy to return to the mainland.
The role played by Aria Wiraraja in the fall of Singosari and the birth of Majapahit has not yet been fully understood. On the one hand he is said to have influenced Jayakatwang to rebel against Kertanagara; yet he also sheltered Raden Wijaya and offered advice on how the young exile could establish a new kingdom. Raden Wijaya was not long in acting. He returned to Kediri, where he offered his allegiance to Jayakatwang, in return for a small area of forest land at Tarik, near Mojokerto. Here, together with a band of loyal Madurese followers, he founded the new settlement of Majapahit.
  
Shiwa - Buddha
In the year A.D. 1359, on his return from an extended tour of the eastern provinces, King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit stopped off at the temple of Jajawa (Candi Jawi) at Pandaan, in the foothills of Mt Welirang. His purpose was to place offerings at the shrine of his great-grandfather Kertanagara, last king of Singosari, in whose memory the temple had been built. The Nagarakertagama describes in detail the magnificence of the sacred compound. The principal monument, in particular, was unique in that it was a Shiwaite sanctuary crowned with a Buddhist ornament. It thus reflected clearly the advanced religious philosophy expounded by Kertanagara, who is said to have returned, on his death, to the realm of 'ShiwaBuddha'. The shrine further contained two mortuary statues of the king, representing the essence of both religions. Yet, as Prapanca explains in his poem, the image of the Buddha Akshobya had mysteriously disappeared at a time when the monument had been struck by lightning, in 1331. While regretting that the statue had vanished, it was accepted as a sign of the Buddha's supreme manifestation, i.e. that of Non-Being!

 

Gajah Mada

According to the Nagarakertagama, and supported by inscriptions dating from the late 13th and early 14th centuries, Raden Wijaya Sri Kertarajasa Jayawardhana married the four daughters of Kertanagara. From his eldest and principal queen, Dyah Dewi Tribhuwaneshwari, was born a son, Jayanagara, who succeeded to the throne on his father's death in 1309.
During the reigns of both Kertarajasa and Jayanagara the focus was on the establishment of stability within the new state. Numerous uprisings occurred, all of which were put down successfully, though not without cost of lives. Then, in 1328, Jayanagara was assassinated. It is said that he was overprotective towards his two half sisters, born from Kertarajasa's youngest queen, Dyah Dewi Gayatri. Complaints lodged by the two young princesses led to the intervention of Gajah Mada, the talented minister who was later to take Majapahit to the height of its glory. He arranged for a surgeon to murder the king while pretending to perform an operation
With the death of Jayanagara the throne of Majapahit was without a direct male heir. The position was occupied instead by the eldest of the deceased king's two sisters, Tribhuwana Wijayatungga Dewi, who ruled until 1350. By that time her son, Hayam Wuruk, who had been born in 1334, became old enough to take over. During his reign, as well as that of his mother, effective power was in the hands of Gajah Mada, who had been appointed prime minister and commander-in chief.
Gajah Mada stands among the greatest of Indonesia's heroes. From the time when he swore his famous oath of allegiance, the Sumpah Palapa, until his death in 1364, a period of just 28 years, he succeeded in spreading the power and influence of Majapahit throughout the archipelago, and even beyond the boundaries of the present day Republic of Indonesia.

The waterfall Madakaripura, to the south of Probolinggo, is believed to have been a part of an area of land granted to Gajah Mada by Hayam Wuruk. According to tradition, it was here that Gajah Mada formulated his famous oath of allegiance, the Sumpah Palapa, in which be vowed to unite the Indonesian archipelago.

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