Sabtu, 30 Juni 2012

emple of Majapahit

The archaeological sites of Majapahit consist, for the most part, of the remains of religious foundations, or candi, built usually from stone or brick. From the two most important and informative literary sources dealing with the history of Majapahit, the Nagarakertagama and Pararaton, we learn that a large number of sacred buildings were constructed as memorial shrines to deceased rulers and their families. The death of a king or queen saw the beginning of a series of funeral rites designed to guide the departed soul back to the source from which it had originated. These rites culminated in the shraddha ceremony, held 12 years after death, upon completion of which it was believed that final liberation was ensured. In memory of the deceased,a stone image of a god or goddess, with whom the ruler had been identified in life, was fashioned as an 'ideal portrait' and placed within a shrine. The Nagarakertagama gives a very complete description of the sbraddha ceremony conducted on behalf of the Rajapatni, grandmother of King Hayam Wuruk, in the year 1362.
It appears that more important rulers often had monuments built in several places, and were further identified with more than one divine image. Thus, King Wishnuwardhana of singosari Shiwa at Waleri (Blitar) and as Amoghapasha (a Buddhist form) at Candi Jajaghu, east of Malang. Likewise, his son and successor, Kertanagara, had memorial shrines built at Pandaan (Candi Jawi) and at Singosari. The Pararaton is especially informative concerning the names and locations of the shrines dedicated to the royal families of Singosari and Majapahit ( see page 158).
The word candi, which is commonly used to identify ancient remains dating from Indonesia's classical period, needs some explanation. The term is generally accepted today as stemming from the sanskrit candika, a name of the Hindu goddess Durga, who inhabits the graveyard. Technically speaking, therefore candi is used to denote an ancient tomb or shrine.In reality, however, we find the word employed in a much wider context, and nowadays it is applied to all manner of archaeological sites, including gateways and bathing places. In a contemporary context, then, a candi may be seen as a place containing a residing spirit, revered for both its age as well as its qualities of mystery. In this sense, it is not different to a pusaka, or sacred heirloom.
The Nagarakertagama differentiates four types of sacred building, but it is difficult to know with certainty which ones among them are properly candi and which are not. It has been suggested that buildings referred to as dharma baji, of which 27 are listed, may be considered as royal shrines. These include Kagenengan, Tumapel, Kidal, Jajaghu, Weda-wedwan, Tudan, Pikatan, Bukul,Jawa-jawa, Antang, Antasari, Kalangbret,Jaga, Balitar, Cilabrit, Waleri, Babeg, Kukap, Lumbang, Pagor, Antahpura, Segala, Simping, Ranggapura, Buddhi Kuncir, Prajnaparamitapuri and Bhayalango.
Of the above-mentioned, the only ones which we can identify with certainty today are Tumapel (Singosari), Kidal, Jajaghu (Jago), Jawa-jawa (Jawi), Simping (Sumberjati) and Bhayalango. Kagenengan and Antahpura are known from literature as being connected with Ken Angrok and Kertarajasa respectively, but the exact locations of these places are not yet known.

Architectural Styles

Surveys of East Javanese temple architecture usually begin with Candi Kidal, which lies to the south east of Malang. Built around the mid 13th century, Kidal is the earliest known example of a new stylistic tendency; a move away from the massive structures which characterized the monuments built by the Sailendra dynasty in Central Java some four centuries earlier, towards more slender buildings with tall, tapering spires. True, we see a foreshadowing of this new style in the Central Javanese temple complex of Prambanan, but the almost total absence of archaeological remains from the intervening period makes it difficult to re-construct any coherent development of architectural design between, say, A.D. 930, when the centre of Javanese political power shifted to the east, and about 1250, the approximate date for the building of Candi Kidal.This new style is quite clearly apparent in a number of other monuments of the 13th and 14th centuries, among them Candi Jawi, Candi Sawentar, Candi Sumberjati (Simping), Candi Bangkal, Candi Bajang Ratu, as well as the 'dated' temple at Penataran.
A further development occurred in spatial orientation. In the classical architecture of Central Java, the layout of a temple or temple complex tended to be symmetrical, with the principal building situated in the centre, almost invariably aligned with the cardinal points. The whole was conceived as an earthly reflection of the subtle regions inhabited by the gods, according to the principles of Hindu and Buddhist cosmology. With the temples of East Java, however, there appears to have been a move away from this closed, centrally focussed orientation, to one where the most important and sacred building was placed at the rear of the complex, furthest from the entrance.
We see a clear example of this idea at Candi Penataran, where the site is divided into three separate courtyards, into which a variety of buildings have been placed in a seemingly haphazard fashion. Symmetry has been all but abandoned. The principal building, which faces west, can be found at the far eastern end of the compound. It has frequently been noted, incidently, that Penataran appears to have been a prototype for the modern day Balinese pura, which usually consists of three courtyards, known as jaba, jaba tengah, and jeroan, The temple is essentially a consecrated space enclosed and protected by its surrounding wall.
One temple which is often considered to contain elements of both early and late classical Javanese design is Candi Singosari. In that it has a symmetrical base with four projections aligned with the cardinal points, the temple follows a pattern commonly found in the Shiwaite monuments of Central Java. Yet there are marked differences, the most notable of which is the location of the four main chambers or niches containing statues. In Central Javanese temples these were almost invariably recessed into the main body of the building, which rested on a solid base. At Singosari, however, the niches have been set into the base itself, perhaps with the intention of creating an illusion of greater height. The roof, which has for the most part collapsed, exhibits further unique elements not yet found in other East Javanese temples.
In some cases, notably the principal temple at Penataran, as well as at Candi Jajaghu, there are indications that the roof was not made of stone, but rather of a combination of wood and sugar palm fibre (ijuk). An example of this type of structure can still be seen at the Pura Yeh Gangga at Perean, 60 kilometres north of Denpasar in Bali. The temple, which dates from the Majapahit period (inscriptions at the site display dates equivalent to A.D. 1339 and 1429) shows the typical 'pagoda-like' tiered roof (mew) of Balinese temples, in this case set on a stone base. Reliefs on the walls of Candi Jajaghu, moreover, display similar structures.

Majapahit's Sites - Majapahit Inheritances

Yet a further innovation which appeared in East Java was the construction of Majapahit's sites. These were of two types. On the one hand, there were buildings like Jajaghu temple, which consisted of a single solid structure built on a number of receding levels. Access was from the front, by means of a system of stone stairways, which led up to the most sacred shrine occupying the highest point.
The other type of terraced sanctuary, which seems to have become popular towards the end of the Majapahit period, was built on the mountain slopes. Examples of this kind of structure can still be seen today, notably at Sukuh and Ceto temple on Mt Lawu, as well as on Mt Penanggungan. These sites of 'altars', as they are sometimes called, appear to recall an earlier period of Indonesian history. Built against the natural hillside, orientated to the mountain peak, the levels of the sanctuary symbolize the divisions of the material and spiritual worlds, which must be traversed before reaching the 'ancestral seat' (pelinggih) situated on the topmost level. A contemporary example of the site mountain sanctuary is Pura Besakih, 'mother temple' of Bali.

Candi Lemari, a terraced sanctuary on the slopes of
Mt. Penanggungan

Terraced "altars" on Mt. Penanggungan, dating from the late Majapahit period

Wringinlawang Temple

A new type of structure which appeared during the Majapahit era was the Bentar temple, or split gateway. As to the origin of this form, there is no certain answer. The earliest known example, of which only the foundation remains, appears to come from the complex of Penataran temple. Dates equivalent to the year A.D. 1320 are inscribed on two stone guardian figures which seem to have been connected with the gate. Another Bentar temple, also in a ruined condition, can be seen at Jawi temple. According to the Nagarakertagama, this temple underwent reconstruction in 1331, which implies the possibility that the gateway was already in existence around the year 1300. Yet the wording of the text is not clear enough to draw a positive conclusion.
One gateway of this type which is still standing, and which is currently undergoing restoration, is Wringinlawang temple (or Jatipasar), located among the ruins at Trowulan. Wringinlawang is generally considered to have been the entrance gate to an important complex of buildings in the Majapahit capital, but its exact age is unknown.
Bentar temple are also found carved in relief on the walls of a number of temples, notably at Jawi and Jajaghu. The latter, which is known to have been the memorial shrine to King Wishnuwardhana of Singosari (d. 1268), invites the suggestion that these split gateways must therefore have been in use as early as the mid-thirteenth century. However, the style of the reliefs suggests a later date than that of the original monument, and they are thus considered to have been carved during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit. The conclusion to be reached from all this is that Bentar temple were almost certainly in use from at least the early years of the 14th century.

Wringinlawang6 Wringinlawang7 Wringinlawang8

Kidal Temple

The narrative poem Nagarakartagama identifies Kidal temple as the burial shrine of King Anusapati, who died in 1248. The temple may then be deted around the middle of the 13th century. A statue of shiwa, said to have come from Kidal and thus assumed to be the portrait of Anusapati, is in the possession of the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam.

Kidal temple, located in Rejokodal village, south east of Malang.

Kidal temple, a detail of the roof, now partially collapsed

Kidal temple, a scene from the Garudeya

Singasari Temple

Candi Singosari, located about 12 kilometres north of Malang, is one of the monuments built in memory of Kertanagara, last king of Singosari, who died when his palace was seized by a usurper in 1292. The temple was partially restored in the 1930's. The roof, in its original state, would have mirrored the cosmic Mt Mahameru of Hindu mythology, four lesser pinnacles on each side surrounding a taller, central 'peak'. Yet it seems that the temple was never completed. The impressive kala heads, highly detailed on the roof, become mere outlines above the entrance and wall niches lower down, showing that the fine carving was executed from the top downwards. For unkown reasons, the artists appear to have abandoned their work.
West of the temple, at a distance of some 200 metres, two enormous guardian figures stand on either side of the road. It has been suggested that the location of these statues may be the site of the original entrance to the palace of Singosari.

One of two guardian figures (dwarapala), measuring almost 4 m. tall

Raden Wijaya

In February 1292 the Mongol emperor of China, Kublai Khan, ordered the preparation of a punitive naval expedition directed against Java. It was partly an act of retaliation for King Kertanagara's refusal to pay tribute to China, and especially for the cruel and contemptuous way in which the Javanese ruler had disfigured the face of an imperial envoy.
The fleet, which is reported to have consisted of 1000 ships, manned with 20,000 soldiers, was ready to leave by November. The journey was hazardous and beset with ill- fortune. Almost immediately after departure the convoy was hit by a typhoon; it was refused entry into Champa, where the loading of fresh supplies had been anticipated, and consequently by the time it approached the harbour at Tuban on Java's north coast the force was already demoralized, many of the soldiers suffering from starvation and dysentery.
The Chinese army was greeted by representatives from the new settlement at Majapahit, who explained that Kertanagara had been defeated and killed a few months previously and that his throne had been seized by a usurper, Jayakatwang of Kediri. The rightful heir, Raden Wijaya, son-in-law of Kertanagara, had established a stronghold at Majapahit and was asking for assistance in the annihilation of their common enemy, in return for official tribute.
An alliance was formed and on 15 March 1293 the combined force launched an attack on Daha (Kediri). The final assault on the capital was made five days later, resulting in the loss of 5000 Kediri lives and the surrender of Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya then returned to Majapahit, ostensibly to prepare his tribute settlement, leaving his allies to celebrate their victory. Quickly mobilizing his forces again, however, he turned on the Chinese army in a surprise attack, killing many and sending the rest running back to their ships. In this way Raden Wijaya established the kingdom of Majapahit. Seven months later, in November 1293, he was officially enthroned, bearing the royal title Kertarajasa Jayawardhana.

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika

The national emblem of the Republic of Indonesia, GARUDA PANCASILA, is emblazoned with the words BHINNEKA TUNGGAL IKA. Translated, they mean 'Unity in Diversity' or, 'We are of many kinds, but we are one'. This motto is a founding principle of the modern Indonesian nation, which declares the essential unity of its members despite ethnic, regional, social or religious differences.
The concept of BHINNEKA TUNGGAL IKA is not new to Indonesian history. It can be traced back to the time of the construction of Borobudur, when the Sailendra dynasty ruled on the plains of Central Java in the eighth and ninth centuries. Two hundred years later, in the Brantas Valley in East Java, King Airlangga built a united kingdom based on this same principle.
It was, however, the 14th century poet sage of Majapahit, Mpu Tantular, who is said to have committed the phrase to writing for the first time. In his religious poem Sutasoma, composed during the reign of King Rajasanagara (Hayam Wuruk), Mpu Tantular expounded a doctrine of reconciliation between the Hindu and Buddhist faiths. Such a spirit of religious tolerance was an essential element in the foundation and security of the newly emerging State of Majapahit, which reached the height of its power and influence under the guiding hand of the prime minister Gajah Mada.
In more recent years, the words of Mpu Tantular were an inspiration to the founders of the first Independent Government of the Republic of Indonesia, and today they are found immortalized on the national emblem.

Mpu Sindok

Following the shift of political power from central to eastern Java at the beginning of the 10th century, the first kingdom to emerge was called Isana, established by Mpu Sindok in A.D. 929. The capital, at Watugaluh, is thought to have been located on the banks of the Brantas river, in the region of Jombang.
Sindok is reported to have had two wives, one of whom, Sri Parameswari Dyah Kbi, may have been the daughter of Dyah Wawa, the last known ruler of ancient Mataram in Central Java. Since it is known that Sindok had formerly held a high ministerial position in the Mataram government, it seems likely that he was recognized as the successor to Dyah Wawa on the strength of this marriage.
Despite the discovery of quite a number of stone inscriptions dating from Sindok's reign, the information which they reveal has not helped to shed very much light on this historical period. Our most informative source, in fact, dates from the following century, when East Java was ruled by King Airlangga. An inscription known as the 'Calcutta Stone', so named because it is preserved in the Indian Museum of Calcutta, traces the genealogy of Airlangga back to King Sindok. Thus we are informed that, following Sindok's death in A.D.947/8, the throne was taken over by his daughter, Sri Isana Tunggawijaya, who was married to a Sri Lokapala. Their son and successor, Sri Makutawangsawardhana, was known as the 'Sun of the Isana Dynasty'. It was from the union of his daughter, Mahendradatta, with the Balinese ruler Udayana, that Airlangga was born.


The famous 'Calcutta Stone', dating from A.D. 1041, describes a terrible calamity which befell the East Javanese kingdom of Isana in the early years of the 11th century. A rebellion incited by a jealous vassal king resulted in the destruction of the capital of Watugaluh. The reigning king, Dharmawangsa, successor to Sri Makutawangsawardhana, was murdered along with his entire family. Only the young Airlangga, who was aged about 16 at the time, managed to escape unharmed.
After spending three or four years in the safety of a forest retreat, Airlangga, as the closest surviving relative to Dharmawangsa, emerged to take over the throne in about 1020. The early part of his reign was spent putting down rebellions and securing the borders of his kingdom. Among his successful military campaigns were those against King Wishnuprabhawa of Wuratan, King Wijaya of Wengker, as well as the subjugation of a powerful queen in the south. In 1032 Airlangga attacked and defeated the ruler of Wurawari, who is believed to have been responsible for the earlier destruction of the old capital of Isana.By the end of Airlangga's reign, in the mid 11th century, the kingdom which he had established is believed to have stretched from Pasuruan in the east, to present day Madiun in the west.
Although there are few surviving archaeological remains dating from his time, Airlangga is known to have been a keen patron of the arts, notably literature. In around 1035, the court poet Mpu Kanwa produced the Arjuna Wiwaha, which has to this day remained one of Java's most popular classical stories. Adapted from the Indian Mahabharata epic, the poem recounts episodes in the life of the hero sage Arjuna, who was an incarnation of the Hindu god Wishnu. There are reasons to believe that the poem was a portrait of the life of Airlangga himself. He, like Arjuna, was seen as a divine incarnation, apparently laid to rest at Candi Belahan, where he was portrayed in stone as Wishnu on Garuda.
Towards the end of his life, Airlangga was faced with the problem of succession. The rightful heir, the princess Sanggramawijaya, refused the throne, preferring to live her life as a hermit. She is traditionally associated with the legend of Dewi Kilisuci and the cave of Selomangleng at Kediri.
Airlangga's realm was, as a result, eventually divided between two of his sons, giving rise to the separate kingdoms of Janggala and Kediri. It was Kediri, however, which was to become the dominant power until the rise of Singosari in the early 13th century.

Rajasa Dynasty

The rulers of Singosari and Majapahit trace their origins back to the mysterious figure of Ken Angrok, who founded the Rajasa dynasty early in the 13th century. According to the Pararaton 1), our main source of literary information about this period, Ken Angrok was born in the Malang region, apparently from the union of his mother, Ken Endok, with the god Brahma 2). Abandoned in a cemetery shortly after his birth, the infant was subsequently adopted by a thief named Lembong, whose questionable talents the child was later to inherit.
As a young man, Ken Angrok became a notorious gambler, running up debts to the point where both his mother and .stepfather were forced into slavery. Such reckless behaviour earned him a great deal of unpopularity in the community, and on more than one occasion Brahma himself had to intervene when he feared for his son's life. Yet, Ken Angrok was destined to become a great king. Signs which indicated him as an incarnation of the god Wishnu were revealed to the Brahmin priest Dang Hyang Lohgawe, who travelled from India in search of the youth. He found him at a gambling table in the village of Taloka. Following the advice of the priest, Ken Angrok accompanied him to Tumapel, where he was placed in the employment of the local ruler, Tunggul Ametung.
Tunggul Ametung had a beautiful young wife named Ken Dedes, the daughter of Mpu Purwa, a renowned Buddhist priest. She had been abducted by the Tumapel ruler while her father was away practicing asceticism in the forest. Returning to find his daughter gone, Mpu Purwa had laid a curse on Tunggul Ametung, swearing that he would meet his end by being stabbed to death by a keris (Javanese double edged dagger). Ken Dedes, on the other hand, was promised a life of happiness and furfilment.
As the gods had willed, Ken Angrok happened to be in the park of Baboji on the day when the ruler of Tumapel and his wife, who was three months pregnant, were passing by. The carriage came to a halt, and as Ken Dedes descended a gentle breeze caused her skirts to part momentarily, allowing the youth a glimpse of the light radiating from between her thighs. Reporting his experience to the priest Lohgawe, Ken Angrok was advised that a woman who displayed such signs possessed enormous power, and whoever took her to wife, regardless of his character or position, would inevitably become a king of kings. On hearing the words of the priest, Ken Angrok resolved to win the hand of Ken Dedes, even if it meant having to kill her husband.
In the village of Lulumbang there lived a renowned metal smith named Mpu Gandring who, it was said, could forge a kens capable of overcoming the strongest magical protection. Since it was known that Tunggul Ametung was a man of great power, a special weapon had to be created in order to destroy him. On hearing Ken Angrok's request, therefore, Mpu Gandring said that he would need a full year in which to perfect the blade. Knowing that Ken Dedes was pregnant, and determined to murder Tunggul Ametung before his wife gave birth to a possible son and heir, Ken Angrok found these conditions unacceptable. Impatiently, he demanded that Mpu Gandring complete the job in five months, and then went on his way.

Joko Dolog

A stone image of the Buddha Akshobya, curiously matching the description of the 'missing statue' at Candi Jawi, can be found today in a small, secluded park in Surabaya. Known locally as Joko Dolog, the statue displays a lengthy sanskrit inscription, carved neatly around its base. When it was translated for the first time early in this century, the inscription was found to reveal important historical information dating from the period immediately prior to the founding of Majapahit. Executed in the year 1289 by a Buddhist scribe named Nada, the contents are roughly as follows:
It is said that in times long past the sage Mpu Bharada divided the land of Java into the kingdoms of Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri), with the purpose of settling a dispute between two brothers over the right to royal succession. The division was created magically, by means of holy water sprinkled out of a jar from the sky. Since the reign of Sri Wishnuwardhana, however, the country had been re-united, to the joy and benefit of all. The present ruler, of whom the statue was said to have been a portrait, was Wishnuwardhana's son, Kertanagara, who had commissioned the image as a symbol of this re-unification.
prasastiThe information contained in the Joko Dolog inscription is especially interesting because it appears to establish the authenticity of certain historical figures and events, previously known only from ancient Javanese literature. The story of the division of Java by the sage Mpu Bharada is of course well known, and refers to the reign of King Airlangga in the 11th century. On the other hand, by giving Wishnuwardhana the credit for having re-united the country, the inscription has tended to cast doubt upon the reliability of traditional literary sources, particularly with regard to the story of Ken Angrok and Ken Dedes, which has by some been dismissed as a complete fabrication.
Yet, since the discovery in 1975 of a number of inscribed copper sheets originating from the region of Kediri, new light has been shed on the early years of the Singosari period. Known as the inscription of Mula Malurung, issued by King Kertanagara in 1255, it mentions the names of Wishnuwardhana, Tohjaya, as well as a number of other kings whose names have been hitherto unknown to historians. Finally, and most interesting, the Mula Malurung inscription appears to suggest the existence of Ken Angrok, thus at least confirming an historical basis for a story which was beginning to fade entirely into the realm of myth.


The last and most well known of the Singosari kings was Kertanagara. Praised in the Nagarakertagama as a devout Buddhist, well versed in many branches of philosophy and esoteric science, he is considered to have been the first Javanese ruler to envision a united Indonesia. Kertanagara's dreams, however, were not to be fully realized until half a century after his death, during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit. The expansionist foreign policy which he pursued, partly as a response to the increasing threat posed by the Mongol emperor, Kublai Khan, was perhaps too ambitious. His expedition to Bali in 1284 was inconclusive, while the army which he sent to subjugate the kingdom of Malayu in lower Sumatra left him unable to cope with rebellion closer to home. Kertanagara had, further, lost the favour of a number of powerful and influential statesmen, who had been loyal to his father, Wishnuwardhana. Two of these especially, the former prime minister Mpu Raganata and the security advisor Aria Wiraraja, had been relegated to lower positions in the new government.
According to one historical account, the Kidung Panji Wijayakrama, the rebellion which led to Kertanagara's death in 1292 was, in part, incited by Wiraraja, who had been given a relatively minor position as governor of Sumenep in Madura.
From information contained in the inscription of Mula Malurung, we learn that Kertanagara, as crown prince and heir apparent to the throne of Singosari, had already been installed as ruler of Kediri in 1254, fourteen years before his father's death. This event was unlikely to have pleased his brother-in-law, Jayakatwang, who claimed direct descent from the old kings of Kediri, and who was thus looking for an opportunity for revenge. The moment came in 1292. Despite repeated warnings from his ministers, Kertanagara did not recognize the weakness of his position. The result was that he died defending his palace, together with many of his closest followers, heavily outnumbered by the forces of Jayakatwang. The story of the gallant but hopeless defense put up by his son-in-law, Raden Wijaya, has been preserved in detail in the famous Kudadu inscription, discovered on the slopes of Mt Butak, to the south of Mojokerto. The inscription relates how the two commanders, Raden Wijaya and Ardaraja, had been given the task of defending the area north of the Singosari capital. Ardaraja, however, who was a son of Jayakatwang, is said to have betrayed his comrade and, perhaps on account of divided loyalty, gone over to the enemy. Reduced finally to an exhausted force of just twelve men, Raden Wijaya fled across the Strait of Madura and took refuge with Aria Wiraraja in Sumenep. From there he designed his strategy to return to the mainland.
The role played by Aria Wiraraja in the fall of Singosari and the birth of Majapahit has not yet been fully understood. On the one hand he is said to have influenced Jayakatwang to rebel against Kertanagara; yet he also sheltered Raden Wijaya and offered advice on how the young exile could establish a new kingdom. Raden Wijaya was not long in acting. He returned to Kediri, where he offered his allegiance to Jayakatwang, in return for a small area of forest land at Tarik, near Mojokerto. Here, together with a band of loyal Madurese followers, he founded the new settlement of Majapahit.
Shiwa - Buddha
In the year A.D. 1359, on his return from an extended tour of the eastern provinces, King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit stopped off at the temple of Jajawa (Candi Jawi) at Pandaan, in the foothills of Mt Welirang. His purpose was to place offerings at the shrine of his great-grandfather Kertanagara, last king of Singosari, in whose memory the temple had been built. The Nagarakertagama describes in detail the magnificence of the sacred compound. The principal monument, in particular, was unique in that it was a Shiwaite sanctuary crowned with a Buddhist ornament. It thus reflected clearly the advanced religious philosophy expounded by Kertanagara, who is said to have returned, on his death, to the realm of 'ShiwaBuddha'. The shrine further contained two mortuary statues of the king, representing the essence of both religions. Yet, as Prapanca explains in his poem, the image of the Buddha Akshobya had mysteriously disappeared at a time when the monument had been struck by lightning, in 1331. While regretting that the statue had vanished, it was accepted as a sign of the Buddha's supreme manifestation, i.e. that of Non-Being!


Gajah Mada

According to the Nagarakertagama, and supported by inscriptions dating from the late 13th and early 14th centuries, Raden Wijaya Sri Kertarajasa Jayawardhana married the four daughters of Kertanagara. From his eldest and principal queen, Dyah Dewi Tribhuwaneshwari, was born a son, Jayanagara, who succeeded to the throne on his father's death in 1309.
During the reigns of both Kertarajasa and Jayanagara the focus was on the establishment of stability within the new state. Numerous uprisings occurred, all of which were put down successfully, though not without cost of lives. Then, in 1328, Jayanagara was assassinated. It is said that he was overprotective towards his two half sisters, born from Kertarajasa's youngest queen, Dyah Dewi Gayatri. Complaints lodged by the two young princesses led to the intervention of Gajah Mada, the talented minister who was later to take Majapahit to the height of its glory. He arranged for a surgeon to murder the king while pretending to perform an operation
With the death of Jayanagara the throne of Majapahit was without a direct male heir. The position was occupied instead by the eldest of the deceased king's two sisters, Tribhuwana Wijayatungga Dewi, who ruled until 1350. By that time her son, Hayam Wuruk, who had been born in 1334, became old enough to take over. During his reign, as well as that of his mother, effective power was in the hands of Gajah Mada, who had been appointed prime minister and commander-in chief.
Gajah Mada stands among the greatest of Indonesia's heroes. From the time when he swore his famous oath of allegiance, the Sumpah Palapa, until his death in 1364, a period of just 28 years, he succeeded in spreading the power and influence of Majapahit throughout the archipelago, and even beyond the boundaries of the present day Republic of Indonesia.

The waterfall Madakaripura, to the south of Probolinggo, is believed to have been a part of an area of land granted to Gajah Mada by Hayam Wuruk. According to tradition, it was here that Gajah Mada formulated his famous oath of allegiance, the Sumpah Palapa, in which be vowed to unite the Indonesian archipelago.


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Siapakah Syeikh Abdul Qodir Jaelani…

Sering kita mendengar tentang nama seorang sufi besar dan ulama besar bernama Syekh Abdul Qodir Jaelani, atau ada yang menyebut Jiilani. Siapakah sebenarnya beliau? Apa yang menjadi pandangan beliau yang jelas tentu tetap berpegang pada junjungan kita Nabi Besar Sayyidina Muhammad SAW…berikut informasi dikumpulkan dari berbagai macam sumber…
Syeikh Abdul Qodir Jaelani (bernama lengkap Muhy al-Din Abu Muhammad Abdul Qodir ibn Abi Shalih Zango Dost al-Jaelani) lahir di Jailan atau Kailan tahun 470 H/1077 M, sehingga diakhir nama beliau ditambahkan kata Al Jailani atau Al Kailani atau juga Al Jiliydan.(Biaografi beliau dimuat dalam Kitab Adz Dzail ‘Ala Thabaqil Hanabilah I/301-390, nomor 134, karya Imam Ibnu Rajab Al Hambali). Beliau wafat pada hari Sabtu malam, setelah maghrib, pada tanggal 9 Rabi’ul Akhir di daerah Babul Azajwafat di Baghdad pada 561 H/1166 M.
Dalam usia 8 tahun ia sudah meninggalkan Jilan menuju Baghdad pada tahun 488 H/1095 M. Karena tidak diterima belajar di Madrasah Nizhamiyah Baghdad, yang waktu itu dipimpin Ahmad al-Ghazali, yang menggantikan saudaranya Abu Hamid al-Ghazali.
Masa Muda
Beliau meninggalkan tanah kelahiran, dan merantau ke Baghdad pada saat beliau masih muda. Di Baghdad belajar kepada beberapa orang ulama’ seperti Ibnu Aqil, Abul Khatthat, Abul Husein Al Farra’ dan juga Abu Sa’ad Al Muharrimi. Beliau belajar sehingga mampu menguasai ilmu-ilmu ushul dan juga perbedaan-perbedaan pendapat para ulama’. Suatu ketika Abu Sa’ad Al Mukharrimi membangun sekolah kecil-kecilan di daerah yang bernama Babul Azaj. Pengelolaan sekolah ini diserahkan sepenuhnya kepada Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani. Beliau mengelola sekolah ini dengan sungguh-sungguh. Bermukim disana sambil memberikan nasehat kepada orang-orang yang ada tersebut. Banyak sudah orang yang bertaubat setelah mendengar nasehat beliau. Banyak orang yang bersimpati kepada beliau, lalu datang ke sekolah beliau, sehingga sekolah itu tidak muat menampungnya.
Murid-murid beliau banyak yang menjadi ulama’ terkenal. Seperti Al Hafidz Abdul Ghani yang menyusun kitab Umdatul Ahkam Fi Kalami Khairil Anam. Juga Syeikh Qudamah penyusun kitab fiqh terkenal Al Mughni.
Perkataan ulama tentang beliau : Syeikh Ibnu Qudamah rahimahullah ketika ditanya tentang Syeikh Abdul Qadir, beliau menjawab, ” kami sempat berjumpa dengan beliau di akhir masa kehidupannya. Beliau menempatkan kami di sekolahnya. Beliau sangat perhatian terhadap kami. Kadang beliau mengutus putra beliau yang bernama Yahya untuk menyalakan lampu buat kami. Beliau senantiasa menjadi imam dalam shalat fardhu.”
Syeikh Ibnu Qudamah sempat tinggal bersama beliau selama satu bulan sembilan hari. Kesempatan ini digunakan untuk belajar kepada Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani sampai beliau meninggal dunia. (Siyar A’lamin NubalaXX/442). Beliau adalah seorang ‘alim. Beraqidah Ahlu Sunnah, mengikuti jalan Salafush Shalih. Dikenal banyak memiliki karamah-karamah. Tetapi banyak (pula) orang yang membuat-buat kedustaan atas nama beliau. Kedustaan itu baik berupa kisah-kisah, perkataan-perkataan, ajaran-ajaran, “thariqah” yang berbeda dengan jalan Rasulullah, para sahabatnya, dan lainnya. Diantaranya dapat diketahui dari perkataan Imam Ibnu Rajab, ”
Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani adalah seorang yang diagungkan pada masanya. Diagungkan oleh banyak para syeikh, baik ‘ulama dan para ahli zuhud. Beliau banyak memiliki keutamaan dan karamah. Tetapi ada seorang yang bernama Al Muqri’ Abul Hasan Asy Syathnufi Al Mishri (Nama lengkapnya adalah Ali Ibnu Yusuf bin Jarir Al Lakh-mi Asy Syath-Nufi. Lahir di Kairo tahun 640 H, meninggal tahun 713 H. Dia dituduh berdusta dan tidak bertemu dengan Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani) mengumpulkan kisah-kisah dan keutamaan-keutamaan Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani dalam tiga jilid kitab. Dia telah menulis perkara-perkara yang aneh dan besar (kebohongannya ). Cukuplah seorang itu berdusta, jika dia menceritakan yang dia dengar. Aku telah melihat sebagian kitab ini, tetapi hatiku tidak tentram untuk berpegang dengannya, sehingga aku tidak meriwayatkan apa yang ada di dalamnya. Kecuali kisah-kisah yang telah masyhur dan terkenal dari selain kitab ini. Karena kitab ini banyak berisi riwayat dari orang-orang yang tidak dikenal. Juga terdapat perkara-perkara yang jauh ( dari agama dan akal ), kesesatan-kesesatan, dakwaan-dakwaan dan perkataan yang batil tidak berbatas. (Seperti kisah Syeikh Abdul Qadir menghidupkan ayam yang telah mati, dan sebagainya.) semua itu tidak pantas dinisbatkan kepada Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani rahimahullah. Kemudian aku dapatkan bahwa Al Kamal Ja’far Al Adfwi (Nama lengkapnya ialah Ja’far bin Tsa’lab bin Ja’far bin Ali bin Muthahhar bin Naufal Al Adfawi. Seoarang ‘ulama bermadzhab Syafi’i. Dilahirkan pada pertengahan bulan Sya’ban tahun 685 H. Wafat tahun 748 H di Kairo. Biografi beliau dimuat oleh Al Hafidz di dalam kitab Ad Durarul Kaminah, biografi nomor 1452.) telah menyebutkan, bahwa Asy Syath-nufi sendiri tertuduh berdusta atas kisah-kisah yang diriwayatkannya dalam kitab ini.”(Dinukil dari kitab At Tashawwuf Fii Mizanil Bahtsi Wat Tahqiq, hal. 509, karya Syeikh Abdul Qadir bin Habibullah As Sindi, Penerbit Darul Manar, Cet. II, 8 Dzulqa’dah 1415 H / 8 April 1995 M.). Imam Ibnu Rajab juga berkata, ” Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani rahimahullah memiliki pemahaman yang bagus dalam masalah tauhid, sifat-sifat Allah, takdir, dan ilmu-ilmu ma’rifat yang sesuai dengan sunnah. Beliau memiliki kitab Al Ghunyah Li Thalibi Thariqil Haq, kitab yang terkenal. Beliau juga mempunyai kitab Futuhul Ghaib. Murid-muridnya mengumpulkan perkara-perkara yang berkaitan dengan nasehat dari majelis-majelis beliau. Dalam masalah-masalah sifat, takdir dan lainnya, ia berpegang dengan sunnah. Beliau membantah dengan keras terhadap orang-orang yang menyelisihi sunnah.”
Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani menyatakan dalam kitabnya, Al Ghunyah, ” Dia (Allah ) di arah atas, berada diatas ‘arsyNya, meliputi seluruh kerajaanNya. IlmuNya meliputi segala sesuatu.” Kemudian beliau menyebutkan ayat-ayat dan hadist-hadist, lalu berkata ” Sepantasnya menetapkan sifat istiwa’ ( Allah berada diatas ‘arsyNya ) tanpa takwil ( menyimpangkan kepada makna lain ). Dan hal itu merupakan istiwa’ dzat Allah diatas arsy.” (At Tashawwuf Fii Mizanil Bahtsi Wat Tahqiq, hal. 515). Ali bin Idris pernah bertanya kepada Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani, ” Wahai tuanku, apakah Allah memiliki wali (kekasih ) yang tidak berada di atas aqidah ( Imam ) Ahmad bin Hambal?” Maka beliau menjawab, ” Tidak pernah ada dan tidak akan ada.”( At Tashawwuf Fii Mizanil Bahtsi Wat Tahqiq, hal. 516).
Perkataan Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani tersebut juga dinukilkan oleh Syeikhul Islam Ibnu Taimiyah dalam kitab Al Istiqamah I/86. Semua itu menunjukkan kelurusan aqidahnya dan penghormatan beliau terhadap manhaj Salaf.
Sam’ani berkata, ” Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani adalah penduduk kota Jailan. Beliau seorang Imam bermadzhab Hambali. Menjadi guru besar madzhab ini pada masa hidup beliau.” Imam Adz Dzahabi menyebutkan biografi Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani dalam Siyar A’lamin Nubala, dan menukilkan perkataan Syeikh sebagai berikut,”Lebih dari lima ratus orang masuk Islam lewat tanganku, dan lebih dari seratus ribu orang telah bertaubat.”
Imam Adz Dzahabi menukilkan perkataan-perkataan dan perbuatan-perbuatan Syeikh Abdul Qadir yang aneh-aneh sehingga memberikan kesan seakan-akan beliau mengetahui hal-hal yang ghaib. Kemudian mengakhiri perkataan, ”Intinya Syeikh Abdul Qadir memiliki kedudukan yang agung. Tetapi terdapat kritikan-kritikan terhadap sebagian perkataannya dan Allah menjanjikan (ampunan atas kesalahan-kesalahan orang beriman ). Namun sebagian perkataannya merupakan kedustaan atas nama beliau.”( Siyar XX/451 ). Imam Adz Dzahabi juga berkata, ” Tidak ada seorangpun para kibar masyasyeikh yang riwayat hidup dan karamahnya lebih banyak kisah hikayat, selain Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani, dan banyak diantara riwayat-riwayat itu yang tidak benar bahkan ada yang mustahil terjadi“.
Syeikh Rabi’ bin Hadi Al Madkhali berkata dalam kitabnya, Al Haddul Fashil,hal.136, ” Aku telah mendapatkan aqidah beliau ( Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani ) didalam kitabnya yang bernama Al Ghunyah. (Lihat kitab Al-Ghunyah I/83-94) Maka aku mengetahui bahwa dia sebagai seorang Salafi. Beliau menetapkan nama-nama dan sifat-sifat Allah dan aqidah-aqidah lainnya di atas manhaj Salaf. Beliau juga membantah kelompok-kelompok Syi’ah, Rafidhah,Jahmiyyah, Jabariyyah, Salimiyah, dan kelompok lainnya dengan manhaj Salaf.” (At Tashawwuf Fii Mizanil Bahtsi Wat Tahqiq, hal. 509, karya Syeikh Abdul Qadir bin Habibullah As Sindi, Penerbit Darul Manar, Cet. II, 8 Dzulqa’dah 1415 H / 8 April 1995 M.)
Inilah tentang beliau secara ringkas. Seorang ‘alim Salafi, Sunni, tetapi banyak orang yang menyanjung dan membuat kedustaan atas nama beliau. Sedangkan beliau berlepas diri dari semua kebohongan itu. Wallahu a’lam bishshawwab.
Kesimpulannya beliau adalah seorang ‘ulama besar. Apabila sekarang ini banyak kaum muslimin menyanjung-nyanjungnya dan mencintainya, maka itu adalah suatu kewajaran. Bahkan suatu keharusan. Akan tetapi kalau meninggi-ninggikan derajat beliau di atas Rasulullah shollallahu’alaihi wasalam, maka hal ini merupakan kekeliruan yang fatal. Karena Rasulullah shollallahu ‘alaihi wasalam adalah rasul yang paling mulia diantara para nabi dan rasul. Derajatnya tidak akan terkalahkan disisi Allah oleh manusia manapun. Adapun sebagian kaum muslimin yang menjadikan Syeikh Abdul Qadir Al Jailani sebagai wasilah ( perantara ) dalam do’a mereka, berkeyakinan bahwa do’a seseorang tidak akan dikabulkan oleh Allah, kecuali dengan perantaranya. I
Jadi sudah menjadi keharusan bagi setiap muslim untuk memperlakukan para ‘ulama dengan sebaik mungkin, namun tetap dalam batas-batas yang telah ditetapkan syari’ah.
Pada tahun 521 H/1127 M, dia mengajar dan berfatwa dalam semua madzhab pada masyarakat sampai dikenal masyarakat luas. Selama 25 tahun Abdul Qadir Jaelani menghabiskan waktunya sebagai pengembara sufi di Padang Pasir Iraq dan akhirnya dikenal oleh dunia sebagai tokoh sufi besar dunia Islam. Selain itu dia memimpin madrasah dan ribath di Baghdad yang didirikan sejak 521 H sampai wafatnya di tahun 561 H. Madrasah itu tetap bertahan dengan dipimpin anaknya Abdul Wahab (552-593 H/1151-1196 M), diteruskan anaknya Abdul Salam (611 H/1214 M). Juga dipimpin anak kedua Abdul Qadir Jaelani, Abdul Razaq (528-603 H/1134-1206 M), sampai hancurnya Baghdad pada tahun 656 H/1258 M.
Syeikh Abdul Qadir Jaelani juga dikenal sebagai pendiri sekaligus penyebar salah satu tarekat terbesar didunia bernama Tarekat Qodiriyah.
Awal Kemasyhuran Al-Jaba’I berkata bahwa Syaikh Abdul Qadir Al-Jailani juga berkata kepadanya, “tidur dan bangunku sudah diatur. Pada suatu saat, dalam dadaku timbul keinginan yang kuat untuk berbicara. Begitu kuatnya sampai aku merasa tercekik jika tidak berbicara. Dan ketika berbicara, aku tidak dapat menghentikannya. Pada saat itu ada dua atau tiga orang yang mendengarkan perkataanku. Kemudian mereka mengabarkan apa yang aku ucapkan kepada orang-orang, dan merekapun berduyun-duyun mendatangiku di masjid Bab Al-Halbah. Karena tidak memungkinkan lagi, aku dipindahkan ke tengah kota dan dikelilingi dengan lampu. Orang-orang tetap datang di malam hari dan memakai lilin dan obor dan memenuhi tempat tersebut. Kemudian aku dibawa keluar kota dan ditempatkan di sebuah mushalla. Namun orang-orang tetap datang kepadaku, dengan mengendarai kuda, unta bahkan keledai dan menempati tempat disekelilingku. Saat itu hadir sekitar 70 orang para wali RadhiAllahu anhum.
Kemudian Syaikh Abdul Qadir melanjutkan, “Aku melihat Rasululloh SAW sebelum dzuhur, beliau berkata kepadaku, ’anakku, mengapa engkau tidak berbicara ?’. ’Ayahku, bagaimana aku yang non arab ini berbicara di depan orang-orang fasih dari Baghdad?’. Beliau berkata, ’buka mulutmu’, lalu beliau meniup 7 kali ke dalam mulutku kemudian berkata, ”bicaralah dan ajak mereka ke jalan Allah dengan hikmah dan peringatan yang baik”. Setelah itu aku shalat dzuhur dan duduk dan mendapati jumlah yang sangat luar biasa banyaknya sehingga membuatku gemetar. Kemudian aku melihat Ali r.a. datang dan berkata, ’buka mulutmu’. Beliau lalau meniup 6 kali kedalam mulutku dan ketika aku bertanya kepadanya mengapa beliau tidak meniup 7 kali seperti yang dilakukan Rasululloh SAW, beliau menjawab bahwa beliau melakukan itu karena rasa hormat beliau kepada RasuluLloh SAW. Kemudian akku berkata, ’Pikiran, sang penyelam, mencari mutiara ma’rifah dengan menyelami laut hati, mencampakkannya ke pantai dada , dilelang oleh lidah sang calo, kemudian dibeli dengan permata ketaatan dalam rumah yang diizinkan Allah untuk diangkat’”. Beliau kemudian menyitir :
Idan untuk wanita seperti Laila seorang pria dapat membunuh dirinya, dan menjadikan maut dan siksaan sebagai sesuatu yang manis
Dalam beberapa manuskrip saya mendapatkan Syaikh Abdul Qadir Al-Jailani berkata, ”Sebuah suara berkata kepadaku saat aku berada di pengasingan diri, ‘kembali ke Baghdad dan ceramahilah orang-orang’. Akupun masuk Baghdad dan menemukan para penduduknya dalam kondisi yang tidak aku sukai dan karena itulah aku tidak jadi mengikuti mereka’. ‘sesungguhnya’ kata suara tersebut ,’mereka akan mendapatkan manfaat dari keberadaan dirimu’.
‘Apa hubungan mereka dengan keselamatan agamaku / keyakinanku’ tanyaku.
‘Kembali (ke Baghdad) dan engkau akan mendapatkan keselamatan agamamu’ jawab suara itu.
Akupun menbuat 70 perjanjian dengan Allah. Diantaranya adalah tidak ada seorangpun yang menentangku dan tidak ada seorang muridku yang meninggal kecuali dalam keadaan bertaubat. Setelah itu, aku kembali ke Baghdad dan mulai berceramah. Suatu ketika saat aku berceramah , aku melihat sebuah cahaya terang benderang mendatangi aku. ‘Apa ini dan ada apa?’tanyaku. ‘Rasululloh SAW akan datang menemuimu untuk memberikan selamat’ jawab sebuah suara. Sinar tersebut makin membesar dan aku mulai masuk dalam kondisi spiritual yang membuatku setengah sadar. Lalu aku melihat RasuLulloh SAW di depan mimbar, mengambang di udara dan memanggilku, ’wahai Abdul Qadir’. Begitu gembiranya aku dengan kedatangan RasuluLloh SAW , aku melangkah naik ke udara menghampirinya. Beliau meniup ke dalam mulutku 7 kali. Kemudian Ali datang dan meniup ke dalam mulutku 3 kali. ’mengapa engkau tidak melakukan seperti yang dilakukan RasuluLloh SAW?’ tanyaku kepadanya. ‘sebagai rasa hormatku kepada Rasulullah SAW‘ jawab beliau.
RasuluLlah SAW kemudian memakaikan jubah kehormatan kepadaku. ‘apa ini ?’ tanyaku. ‘ini’ jawab Rasulullah, ’adalah jubah kewalianmu dan dikhususkan kepada orang-orang yang mendapat derajad Qutb dalam jenjang kewalian’. Setelah itu , akupun tercerahkan dan mulai berceramah.
Saat Khidir as. Datang hendak mengujiku dengan ujian yang diberikan kepada para wali sebelumku, Allah membukakan rahasianya dan apa yang akan di katakannya kepadaku. Aku berkata kepadanya, ”Wahai Khidir, apabila engkau berkata kepadaku ’Engkau tidak akan sabar kepadaku’, maka aku akan berkata kepadamu ‘Engkau tidak akan sabar kepadaku’. Wahai Khidir, Engkau termasuk golongan Israel sedangkan aku termasuk golongan Muhammad, maka inilah aku dan engkau. Aku dan engkau seperti sebuah bola dan lapangan, yang ini Muhammad dan yang ini Ar-Rahman, ini kuda berpelana, busur terentang dan pedang terhunus.” Al-Khattab pelayan Syaikh Abdul QAdir meriwayatkan bahwa suatu hari ketika beliau sedang berceramah tiba-tiba beliau berjalan naik ke udara dan berkata, “Hai orang Israel, dengarkan apa yang dikatakan oleh kaum Muhammad” lalu kembali ke tempatnya. Saat ditanya mengenai hal tersebut beliau menjawab, ”Tadi Abu Abbas Al-Khidir as lewat, maka akupun berbicara kepadanya seperti yang kalian dengar tadi dan ia berhenti”.
Guru dan teladan kita Syaikh Abdul Qadir Al-Jilli berkata,” seorang Syaikh tidak dapat dikatakan mencapai puncak spiritual kecuali apabila karakter berikut ini telah mendarah daging dalam dirinya yaitu :
Dua karakter dari Allah yaitu dia menjadi seorang yang Sattar (menutup aib) dan Ghaffar (Maha pemaaf).
Dua karakter dari RasuluLlah SAW yaitu penyayang dan lembut
Dua karakter dari Abu Bakar yaitu jujur dan dapat dipercaya.
Dua karakter dari Umar yaitu amar ma’ruf nahi munkar
Dua karakter dari Utsman yaitu dermawan dan bangun (tahajjud) pada waktu orang lain sedang tidur.
Dua karakter dari Ali yaitu aalim (cerdas/intelek) dan pemberani.
Masih berkenaan dengan pembicaraan di atas dalam bait syair yang dinisbatkan kepada beliau dikatakan :
Bila lima perkara tidak terdapat dalam diri seorang syaikh maka ia adalah Dajjal yang mengajak kepada kesesatan.
Dia harus sangat mengetahui hukum-hukum syariat dzahir, mencari ilmu hakikah dari sumbernya, hormat dan ramah kepada tamu, lemah lembut kepada si miskin, mengawasi para muridnya sedang ia selalu merasa diawasi oleh Allah
Syaikh Abdul Qadir juga menyatakan bahwa Syaikh Al-Junaid mengajarkan standar Al-Qur’an dan Sunnah kepada kita untuk menilai seorang Syaikh. Apabila ia tidak hapal Al-Qur’an, tidak menulis dan menghapal Hadits, maka dia tidak pantas untuk diikuti.
Menurut saya (penulis buku) yang harus dimiliki seorang Syaikh ketika mendidik seseorang adalah dia menerima si murid untuk Allah, bukan untuk dirinya atau alasan lainnya. selalu menasihati muridnya, mengawasi muridnya dengan pandangan kasih. Lemah lembut kepada muridnya saat sang murid tidak mampu menyelesaikan Riyadhah. Dia juga harus mendidik si murid bagaikan anak sendiri dan orang tua penuh dengan kasih dan kelemah lembutan dalam mendidik anakknya. Oleh karena itu dia selalu memberikan yang paling mudah kepada si murid dan tidak membebaninya dengan sesuatu yang tidak mampu dilakukannya. Dan setelah sang muuriid bersumpah untuk bertobat dan selalu taat kepada Allah baru sang syaikh memberikan yang lebih berat kepadanya. Sesungguhnya bai’at bersumber dari hadits RasuluLlah SAW ketika beliau mengambil bai’at para sahabatnya.
Kemudian dia harus mentalqin si murid dengan zikir lengkap dengan silsilahnya. Sesungguhnya Ali ra. Bertanya kepada RasuluLloh SAW, ‘Yaa Rasulullah, jalan manakah yang terdekat untuk sampai kepada Allah, paling mudah bagi hambanya dan paling afdhal di sisi Nya. RasuluLlah berkata,’Ali, hendaknya jangan putus berzikir (mengingat) kepada Allah dalam khalwat (kontemplasinya)’. Kemudian Ali ra. Kembali berkata , ‘Hanya demikiankah fadhilah zikir, sedangkan semua orang berzikir’. RasuluLlah berkata,’Tidak hanya itu wahai Ali, kiamat tidak akan terjadi di muka bumi ini selama masih ada orang yang mengucapkan “Allah” “Allah”. ‘Bagai mana aku berzikir?’. Tanya Ali. RasuluLlah bersabda, ’dengarkan apa yang aku ucapkan. Aku akan mengucapkannya sebanyak tiga kali dan aku akan mendengarkan engkau mengulanginya sebanyak tiga kali pula’. Lalu RasuluLlah berkata, “Laa ilaaha illallah” sebanyak tiga kali dengan mata terpejam dan suara kjeras. Ucapan tersebut di ulang oleh Ali dengan cara yang sama RasuluLlah lakukan. Inilah asal talqin kalimat Laa ilaaha Illallah. Semoga Allah memberikan taufiknya kepada kita dengan kalimat tersebut”.
Syaikh Abdul Qadir berkata, ”Kalimat tauhid akan sulit hadir pasda seorang individu yang belum di talqin dengan zikir bersilsilah kepada RasulluLlah oleh Mursyidnya saat menghadapi sakaratil maut”.
Karena itulah Syaikh Abdul Qadir selalu mengulang-ulang syair yang berbunyi : Wahai yang enak diulang dan diucapkan (kalimat tauhid) jangan engkau lupakan aku saat perpisahan (maut)

Karomah Habib Sholeh Tanggul

Membicarakan karamah Habib Sholeh tidak bisa lepas dari peristiwa yang mempertemukan dirinya dengan Nabi Khidir AS. Kala itu, layaknya pemuda keturunan Arab lainnya, orang masih memanggilnya Yik, kependekan dari kata Sayyid, yang artinya Tuan, sebuah gelar untuk keturunan Rasulullah.
Suatu ketika Yik Sholeh sedang menuju stasiun Kereta Api Tanggul yang letaknya memang dekat dengan rumahnya. Tiba-tiba datang seorang pengemis meminta uang. Sholeh yang sebenarnya membawa sepuluh rupiah menjawab tidak ada, karena hanya itu yang dimiliki. Pengemis itupun pergi, tetapi kemudian datang dan minta uang lagi. Karena dijawab tidak ada, ia pergi lagi, tetapi lalu datang untuk ketiga kalinya. Ketika didapati jawaban yang sama, orang itu berkata, “Yang sepuluh rupiah di saku kamu?” seketika Yik Sholeh meresakan ada yang aneh. Lalu ia menjabat tangan pengemis itu. Ketika berjabat tangan, jempol si pengemis terasa lembut seperti tak bertulang. Keadaan seperti itu, menurut beberapa kitab klasik, adalah cirri fisik nabi Khidir. Tangannyapun dipegang erat-erat oleh Yek Sholeh, sambil berkata, “Anda pasti Nabi Khidir, maka mohon doakan saya.” Sang pengemispun berdoa, lalu pergi sambil berpesan bahwa sebentar lagi akan datang seorang tamu.
Tak lama kemudian, turun dari kereta api seorang yang berpakaian serba hitam dan meminta Yik Sholeh untuk menunjukkan rumah habib Sholeh. Karena di sekitar sana tidak ada yang nama Habib Sholeh, dijawab tidak ada. Karena orang itu menekankan ada, Yik Sholeh menjawab, “Di daerah sini tidak ada, tuan, nama Habib Sholeh, yang ada Sholeh, saya sendiri, “Kalau begitu andalah yang saya cari,” jawab orang itu lalu pergi, membuat Yik Sholeh tercengang.
Sejak itu, rumah Habib Sholeh selalu ramai dikunjungi oraang, mujlai sekedar silaturrahmi, sampai minta berkah doa. Tidak hanya dari tanggul, tetapi juga luar Jawa bahkan luar negeri, seperti Belanda, Afrika, Cina, Malaysia, Singapura dan lain-lain. Mantan wakil Presiden Adam malik adalah satu dari sekian pejabat yang sering sowan kerumahnya. Satu bukti kemasyhuran beliau, jika Habib Sholeh ke Jakarta, menjemputnya bejibun, melebihi penjemputan Presiden,” ujar KH. Abdillah yang mengenal dengan baik Habib, menggambarkan.
KH.Ahmad Qusyairi bin Shiddiq adalah sahabat karib habib. Dulunya Habib Sholeh sering mengikuti pengajian KH. Ahmad Qusyairi di Tanggul, tetapi setelah tanda-tanda kewalian Habib mulai menampak, ganti KH. Qusyairi yang mengaji kepada Habib.
Menjelang wafat, KH. Qusyairi sowan kepada Habib. Tidak seperti biasa, kala itu sambutan Habib begitu hangat, sampai dipeluk erat-erat. Habib pun mnyembelih seekor kambing khusus menjamu sang teman karib. Disela-sela bercengkrama, Habib mengatakan bahwa itu terakhir kali yang ia lakukan. Ternyata beberapa hari kemudian KH. Qusyairi wafat di kediamannya di Pasuruan.
Tersebutlah seorang jenderal yang konon pernah mendapat hadiah pulpen dari Presiden AS D. Esenhower. Suatu ketika pulpen itu raib saat dibawa ajudannya kepasar (kecopetan). Karuan saja sang ajudan kalang kabut, sehingga disarankan oleh seorang kenalannya agar minta tolong ke Habib Sholeh.
Sampai di sana, Habib menyuruh mencari di Pasar Tanggul. Sekalipun aneh, dituruti saja, dan ternyata pulpen itu tidak ditemukan. Habib menyuruh lagi, lagi-lagi tidak ditemukan. Karena memaksa, Habib masuk kedalam kamarnya, dan tak lama kemudian keluar dengan menjulurkan sebuah Pulpen. “Apa seperti ini pulpen itu? Sang ajudan tertegun, karena ternyata itulah pulpen sang jenderal yang sudah pindah ke genggaman pencopet.
Nama Habib Sholeh kian terkenal dan harum. Kisah-kisah yang menuturkan karamah beliau tak terhitung. Tetapi perlu dicatat, karamah hanyalah suatu indikasi kewalian seseorang. Kelebihan itu dapat dicapai setelah melalui proses panjang yaitu pelaksanaan ajaran Islam secara Kaffah. Dan itu dilakukan secara konsekwen dan terus menerus (istiqamah), sampai dikatakan bahwa Istiqamah itu lebih mulia dari seribu karamah.
Tengok saja komitmen Habib terhadap nilai-nilai keislaman, termasuk keperduliannya terhadap fakir miskin, janda dan anak yatim, menjadi juru damai ketika ada perselisihan. Beliau dikenal karena akhlak mulianya, tidak pernah menyakiti hati orang lain, bahkan berusaha menyenangkan hati mereka, sampai-sampai dikenal tidak pernah permintaan orang. Siapapun yang bertamu akan dijamu sebaik mungkin. Habib Sholeh sering menimba sendiri air sumur untuk mandi dan wudu para tamunya.
Maka buah yang didapat, seperti ketika Habib Ahmad Al-Hamid pernah berkata kepada baliau, kenapa Allah selalu mengabulkan doanya. Habib Sholeh menjawab, “Bagaimana tidak? Sedangkan aku belum pernah melakukan hal yang membuat-Nya Murka.”